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Colour instructions for Solarfly now online!! Click here to download (600K )

 

FABRICATION of CYBUG SCARAB

This page was developed from the CYBUG Scarab manual to give you a colour version of the construction guide to help you with your assembly.
 

Note:  Right-click on images and select view image  for a more detailed view

Place the following resistors in the identified location. They should be flush with the circuit board. Flaring the leads slightly on the opposite side will help hold the parts in when the board is turned upside down for soldering. Note: W = ohms

 

  ( ) R1-330 W (orange, orange, brown, gold)

( ) R3-2.2KW (red red red gold)

( ) R4 & R8-50K Potentiometer: square blue or grey box

( ) R5-330W (orange orange brown gold)

( ) R7-2.2KW (red red red gold)

( ) R9 & R13-2.2K (red red red gold)

( ) R10 & R12 - 10K (brown black orange gold)

( ) R11 & R14 - 10K.(brown black orange gold)

SAFETY WARNING: To avoid eye injury when you clip off excess leads wear safety glasses!

For good solder connections, you must keep the soldering iron tip clean. Wipe it often with a sponge or cloth. ( ) Solder the leads to the circuit board and cut off excess lead lengths.
NOTE: No lead should extend more than 1/8" above the circuit board after it has been soldered and cut off.

( ) C1 & C2 100uf Electrolytic ( Watch the polarity! )

( ) C11 & C12 - 220uf capacitors ( Watch polarity)

( ) C7 & C8 - 1000uf Electrolytic capacitors (Watch polarity! )

Typical electrolytic capacitor
  


NOTE: The label 103 on the monolithic capacitors refers to 10x103 pF or 0.01x10-6 farads ( 0.01 uF ) There is no polarity on this part.
Typical monolithic capacitor
( ) C3 &C4 0.01uf ( 103 ) capacitors ( Small yellow or blue beads )

( ) C5 & C6 - 0.001uf (102) capacitors (by motors)

( ) C9 & C10 - 0.01uf (103) capacitors

( ) Solder the leads to the circuit board and cut off excess lead lengths.

 
 


This part of the fabrication involves mounting the semi-conductors onto the CYBUG. Please note: All these components are polarity sensitive, and will be damaged if they are put in upside down. Please heed all directions.

Diodes have polarity! The black bar on the diode is the negative end, and must align with the white line on the printed circuit board

( ) D2 & D4 - 1n4148 Diodes Small orange glass component

Putting in the diode with correct polarity


When installing LED’s, watch the polarity! The negative side is the side with the slightly shorter lead and the plastic base of the LED has a slight flat impression. These must line up with the flat line marking on the printed circuit board!
( ) D1 & D3- RED LED’s. Mount these flush to the circuit board. (Watch Polarity! )
Putting in the LED with the correct polarity


Integrated circuits must be installed with the notch on the top of the plastic case aligned with the notch shown on the silk- screen.

( ) IC1, IC2, and IC3. Install Integrated Circuits
 
Typical integrated circuit
 
 
  

( ) R2 and R6. Install Photocells. Leave about inch of lead on these devices and point them slightly outward from the body of the CYBUG.
Typical Photocell
 

When installing the transistors and voltage regulator, line up the flat side of the plastic case with the line on the white silk-screen. Leave about 5mm lead length from the base of the component to the circuit board. BE CAREFUL! The 2n3904 transistors look JUST LIKE THE 78L05! Don’t mix them up!
78L05 Voltage regulator with correct polarity
( ) Install transistors Q1 and Q2 (2n3904 transistors) and A1 (78L05 voltage regulator ).

( ) Solder the leads to the circuit board and cut off excess lead lengths.
 

 

This section details the installation of the motors, feelers, and other finishing details.

( ) Cut 3 cm lengths of wire ( two black and two red) from the end of the 9V battery clip leads. Strip 0.5cm of insulation from each of the ends.

( ) Lightly sand each motor on the side of the motor opposite the red stripe

( ) Attach the red and black wires to the two motors, using the motor terminal with the red dot for the red wire.
The motor with wires attached
 
 


( ) Cut two lengths of stiff brass wire 4.5cm long and straighten them.
( ) Bend each of the ends of the stiff brass wire precisely as shown below (Actual size). These wires will form the motor bracket.
 

 

The mounting wire for the motor


( ) Solder the motor support rods on to the CYBUG circuit boards at the points marked A and B. (Do both sides.)
 
 
Soldering the motor to the mounting wire
 
( ) Place the motor into the Motor bracket so that it angles downward at approximately 45 degrees as shown in the following illustration. Solder the brass wire to the motor as shown.

( ) Solder the loose ends of the red an black motor wires to the pads on either side of C5 and C6.
  

This part of the exercise creates the feelers which our CYBUG’s depend upon for avoiding obstacles.

( ) Prepare two pieces of brass feeler wire, each about 17 cm long. One end of each wire must be bent at a 90 degree angle about 0.5 cm along the length.
( ) Prepare two pieces of wire 2 cm long by stripping off all insulation and bending the wire into a "U" shape 0.6cm at it’s base and 0.6cm tall.
 
Installing a front feeler

( ) Insert each of these "U" shaped wires in the feeler sensor pads immediately in front of R2 and R6. Leave about 0.5 cm between the circuit board and the top of the loop of wire. Solder both sides and cut excess wire.

( ) Pass a 15cm brass feeler wire through the right loop of wire, across the front of the CYBUG and into the "left feeler" pad. Solder the 90 degree bent end into the "left feeler" pad.

( ) Repeat the previous step for the other "right feeler" It should be a mirror image of the left feeler.

( ) Using pliers, bend the feeler wire around the front of the CYBUG as shown in illustration "feeler wire detail"


You must now decide if you want your robot to chase light sources ( photo-tropic ) or run from light sources ( photo-phobic )

( ) For Photo-tropic behavior, solder a short wire connecting jumpers J1 ( a to b ) and J2 ( c to d ).

( ) For Photo-phobic behavior, solder wire from a to d and another wire from c to b.

Jumpers J1 and J2 for photo-tropic behaviour

We are almost ready to bring your CYBUG to life, but we have a few final adjustments and add some frills to take care of.

( ) Solder a length of brass wire 3 cm long to hang down below one of the solder pads by LED D3. This will act to prevent our CYBUG from tipping on his nose ( Front Support Rod ).

( ) Similarly, solder another brass wire ( support rod ) 3cm long to the pad behind R11 to stop the CYBUG from tipping backward.
The rear support rod ( brass wire )
 


( ) Slice a inch section of the hot glue stick with a sharp knife to use as a wheel. Poke a hole in the center of the disk with small nail. Press the motor shaft into the hole.
A motor with hot-glue slice as wheel


( ) Prepare the 9V battery clip by cutting the red and black wires to a length of 8 cm and stripping 0.5 cm of insulation off each end.
( ) Connect the pads immediately behind the L293 motor controller using a small piece of uninsulated wire ( See Jumper Detail )

( ) Loop the red and black leads through the large holes as shown then solder battery clip leads to pads near the back of the CYBUG labeled RED and BLACK.. This will provide a small amount of strain relief
Detail of rear jumper and battery connection
 
( ) Using a long zip-tie ( or wire ) strap the 9V battery to the top (or bottom) of the CYBUG. If your battery has a metal case, please wrap it in tape to insulate it from circuit-board  


Bringing the CYBUG to life

The first time you apply power to your first CYBUG, it may behave rather awkwardly. You will need a small screwdriver to adjust it’s behavior.

The following adjustments should be performed in normal room light.
( ) While watching LED D1, adjust potentiometer R4 until the LED in on for only the time that it is off. ( i.e. if it is off for 2 seconds, set the on time for roughly 0.5 seconds. )

( ) Repeat the previous task on R8 while watching LED D3.

By adjusting these potentiometer’s settings you are controlling the activity level of your CYBUG. Your creation may be a fast, energy consuming predatory creature, or a slow, deliberate herbivore.


TROUBLESHOOTING

My CYBUG doesn’t move at all! No lights, no nothing!

Sounds like he has an energy crisis. Assuming his batteries are OK, I suggest you check carefully that you have not placed the voltage regulator in backwards or attached the 9V battery clip backwards.

His red LED’s light up and he moves, but he only backs up ( or backs up on one side )

Your CYBUG has one or both of his feelers touching the feeler sensor loop through which they pass. Carefully bend the lengths of feeler wire so that they pass directly through the loops, but don’t touch the loop. If the feelers touch something, then they will touch the loop!

He moves OK, but his eye(s) aren’t lighting up!

Chances are you have put his LED’s in backwards. Make sure the flat part on the base of the LED is facing the back of the CYBUG.

Both motors go forward 100% of the time, and pay no attention to the light or obstacles.

This can happen if the jumpers J1 and J2 are not installed. Be sure that the two jumpers are in place as described on page 8 of this manual